Appendices Taxpayers’ Bill of Rights Annual Report to the Legislature
Appendix 1 – Assessments
All tables in Appendix 1 reflect tax increase assessments only. The assessments became final in FY 2021/2022. We may have issued the assessments in prior years; however, due to cases in protest status, we did not resolve them until FY 2021/2022. Appendix 1 totals reflect rounded figures and may not compute exactly. If a single NPA included multiple issues, we categorized the NPA under the issue that provided the majority of the tax change. We categorized the NPA as “Other” when there was no distinct primary issue.
Data may not add up perfectly in the tables throughout Appendix 1 due to rounding.
Table 1A Corporation Tax Law
|Assess Minimum Tax||14||0.9||$0.0||0.0||$757|
|Revenue Agent Reports||924||58.4||$70.2||14.8||$75,946|
Explanation for Table 1A issues:
- Allocation/Apportionment involves corporations doing business within and outside of California.
- Revenue Agent Reports typically result when California conforms to federal law and a change to a taxpayer’s federal tax return applies to the taxpayer’s California tax return.
- State Adjustments reflect the differences between the IRC and the R&TC.
Table 1B Personal Income Tax Law
|Revenue Agent Reports||13,779||2.8||$64,710||3.4||$4,696|
Explanation for Table 1B issues:
- The CP2000 category results from the IRS comparing information documents that report income paid to individuals by third parties against income reported on their tax returns.
- Filing Enforcement refers to assessments issued to individuals who have not filed a state income tax return after we notified them of their filing requirement.
- Filing Status primarily reflects notices issued due to head of household adjustments.
Table 2 Corporation Tax Law
2020 Tax Year
|%||Corporations with NPAs||%||Tax Assessed(Millions)||%|
* Finance, insurance, real estate, and holding companies.
** Includes agriculture, construction, utilities, transportation, communication, information, and other industries not classified in the sample.
For corporations not filing through a combined report, we base the industry designation on the corporation’s primary business activity in California. In the case of corporations filing through combined reports, we base the industry designation on the primary occupation of the group, not necessarily on the industry of the parent. If the parent is a holding company of a diverse group of subsidiary corporations, then we group it with finance, insurance, real estate, and holding companies.
Tables 3A, 3B, and 4, apply to either the taxable years for which we issued NPAs or the number of years for which a taxpayer receives NPAs because of multiple taxable year audits during the same audit cycle.
Table 3A Corporation Tax Law
|Average Taxable Year||Number of
|2014 and prior||407||25.7||$320.3||67.4||$786,928|
|2020 and later||5||0.3||$0.2||0.0||$42,231|
Because the statute of limitations for assessing additional tax has passed, the earlier years reflect final figures.
Table 3B Corporation Tax Law
|Corporations With…||Number of Taxpayers||Tax Assessed (Millions)||Average Assessment Per Taxpayer|
|Four or more NPAs||51||$195.9||$3,841,773|
Table 4 Personal Income Tax Law
|Taxable Year||Number of NPAs||%||Assessment Amount (Thousands)||%||Average Assessment Amount|
|2015 and prior||2,190||0.4||$203,002||10.8||$92,695|
|2020 and later||67||0.0||$1,936||0.1||$28,902|
Table 5 Personal Income Tax Law
|Preparer||2020 e-filed Tax Returns Processed (Thousands)||%||2021 e-filed Tax Returns Processed (Thousands)||%||% Change|
*VITA is a program that provides tax return preparation assistance for seniors, disabled, non-English speaking, and those with limited or fixed incomes.
Appendix 2 – Filing Errors
Table 6A Top Errors by Tax Return Type
|Code||Code Description||Grand Total||540 2EZ||540||540 NR||540 X|
|EP||Estimate Payment Revised||245,568||0||213,848||31,183||4,408|
|AC||Incomplete Tax Return||175,875||4,998||165,157||5,711||3,253|
|TT||Error Calculating Total Credits or Tax Liability||160,710||1,111||155,429||4,146||1,998|
|MB||Verify Total Premium Assistance Subsidy||66,964||0||66,267||697||0|
|WS||Verify Withholding (Form 592-B and/or 593)||63,822||0||18,487||45,210||1,310|
|JX||Check full year health care coverage or if 3853 attached||61,707||6,369||47,146||8,192||122|
|OC||Verify Amt applied to next year est. tax||55,327||0||43,114||12,213||183|
|FM||Filing Status Adjusted from HOH to Single||45,113||306||44,090||713||505|
|JS||Check Full Year Health Care Coverage or if 3853 Attached||44,451||1,794||40,831||1,811||398|
|BG||Verify Federal AGI and Sch CA, Col A: Total (AGI)||33,499||0||33,499||0||325|
|LQ||Check Overpaid Tax on Original or Adjusted and Agency Offsets||26,559||0||26,433||126||132|
|LZ||Verify Col f: Monthly PAS Amount Allowed||26,235||0||25,881||354||22|
|SS||Check Excess SDI||25,621||0||24,866||692||318|
|EK||Check 3514 Federal AGI, Earned Income, and Qualifying children||24,746||500||23,981||262||152|
|LY||Verify Col a: Monthly Enrollment Premiums and Col e: Monthly Max PAS Amt||24,217||0||23,908||309||33|
|JW||Verify Penalty Amount||22,348||268||20,432||1,648||21|
|LX||Verify Monthly Amounts in Columns a, b and d||21,830||0||21,529||301||19|
|JV||Verify Modified Adj Gross Income and Part II Line 1||21,081||181||20,181||719||138|
|GF||Verify Total Taxable Income, Tax and CA Tax Rate||19,681||0||0||19,681||319|
Table 6B Top Errors by Filing Method
|Code||Code Description||Grand Total||Electronic||Paper|
|EP||Estimate Payment Revised||245,568||207,435||38,133|
|AC||Incomplete Tax Return||175,875||175,328||547|
|TT||Error Calculating Total Credits or Tax Liability||160,710||155,450||5,260|
|MB||Verify Total PAS||66,964||60,424||6,540|
|WS||Verify Withholding (Form 592-B and/or 593)||63,822||53,620||10,202|
|JX||Check Full Year Health Care Coverage or If 3853 Attached||61,707||3||61,704|
|OC||Verify Amt Applied To Next Yr Est Tax||55,327||43,793||11,534|
|FM||Check Dependent SSN Allowed on Another Return||45,113||21,813||23,300|
|JS||Filing Status adjusted from HOH to Single||44,451||15,487||28,964|
Appendix 3 – Regulations
Regulation Sections 17951-5 and 17951-8 — Market-Based Rules – Personal Income Tax Sourcing
When California adopted market-based sourcing rules pursuant to Proposition 39 as codified in R&TC Section 25136, these rules impacted the Personal Income Tax law. Title 18, of the California Code of Regulations (CCR) in Section 17951-4 directly incorporates R&TC Sections 25120 through 25139 and the regulations thereunder. Therefore, owners of pass-through entities and disregarded entities (such as, sole proprietorships) are also subject to market-based sourcing rules.
The purpose of this regulation project is to clarify the regulations concerning sourcing of income subject to market-based sourcing. The project also will clarify which sourcing rules remain unchanged.
The three-member Board approved staff's request to begin the informal regulatory process on December 3, 2019. On October 8, 2020, staff held an interested parties meeting and received comments from the public. Staff anticipates requesting permission from the three-member Board to proceed to the formal regulatory process in spring 2023.
Regulation Section 17951-7 and 25137(e) – Tax Deferred Exchanges
On June 27, 2013, the California Legislature enacted AB 92. (Stats. 2013, Ch. 26.) Under AB 92, for tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2014, taxpayers who perform IRC Section 1031 exchanges of property located in California for property located outside of California are required to file an annual information return with FTB for each year in which the gain or loss from that exchange has not been recognized. (Refer to R&TC Sections 18032 and 24953.) AB 92 reflects existing California law requiring taxpayers to recognize deferred gains/losses associated with IRC Section 1031 exchanges of property located in California as California source income; however, as a result of the new reporting requirement, FTB has received numerous requests for clarification of the determination of California source income in such exchanges.
For personal income tax, R&TC Section 17954 specifically authorizes FTB to issue regulations for allocating and apportioning gross income from sources within and without California for the purposes of computing taxable income of nonresidents and part-year residents under paragraph (1) of subdivision (i) of R&TC Section 17041.
FTB also has authority for corporate franchise and income tax taxpayers to require alternative apportionment formulas where the standard allocation and apportionment provisions of the Uniform Division of Income for Tax Purposes Act (UDITPA) do not fairly represent the extent of the taxpayer’s business activity in this state. (R&TC Section 25137.)
The purpose of this regulation project is to: (1) clarify the sourcing of deferred gains/losses from IRC Section 1031 exchanges of property located in California; and (2) determine which year’s apportionment factor(s) should be applied to deferred gains/losses from IRC Section 1031 exchanges for apportioning taxpayers.
Staff held an interested parties meeting on February 3, 2016, to discuss multiple scenarios regarding the sourcing and factors for 1031 exchanges. On March 30, 2021, staff held a second interested parties meeting and received comments from the public. Staff anticipates holding a third interested parties meeting in late 2022 or early 2023.
Regulation Section 18001 — Other State Tax Credit
Pursuant to R&TC Section 18001, California allows a credit against the net tax for net income taxes imposed by and paid to another state on specified income. Under R&TC Section 18001, the payment of tax to a sister state is generally eligible for an Other State Tax Credit (OSTC) only where the other state's tax is a net income tax.
The purpose of this regulation project is to elicit public input on the potential adoption of a regulation which would clarify the statutory term "net income taxes paid to another state" for purposes of the OSTC.
On December 10, 2018, the three-member Board approved staff's request to begin the informal regulatory process. Staff held interested parties meetings on August 7, 2019, and July 30, 2020, to receive public input on the issue and present draft amendments. On June 3, 2021, staff received permission from the three-member Board to proceed to the formal regulatory process. Staff anticipates publishing the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in late 2022.
Regulation Section 18567 — Automatic Extension of Time for Filing Tax Returns by Partnerships
CCR, Title 18, Section 18567 (Automatic Extension Regulation) was adopted on October 12, 2001, to provide an automatic paperless extension for a tax return required to be filed by an individual, fiduciary, or partnership, if the tax return is filed within the extension period. Subsequent to its adoption, FTB staff determined that the Automatic Extension Regulation required updating, to provide consistency with the authority granted by the California Legislature in 2017, to extend the automatic extension period to seven months for a tax return filed by a partnership, or by an LLC that is classified as a partnership for California tax purposes. Accordingly, the purpose of this regulation project is to provide consistency with the statutory authority granted by the Legislature and provide clarity to taxpayers and tax preparers that the automatic extension period is seven months for a tax return filed by a partnership or an LLC that is classified as a partnership for California tax purposes, for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2017, while the extension period for an individual or fiduciary tax return remains six months.
On December 7, 2017, staff received permission from the three-member Board to proceed to the formal regulatory process. Staff anticipates publishing the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in early 2023.
Regulation Sections 18662-4 through 18662-8 – Withholding on Domestic Pass-Through Entities
The purpose of this project is to revise existing withholding on pass-through entities to reflect current statutory requirements under R&TC Section 18662. In particular, the purpose of the proposed new regulation at CCR Section 18662-7 is to modify the withholding on pass-through entities to consider withholding on the “distributive share” of income.
There are two reasons supporting this modification. First, R&TC Section 18662, subdivisions (a) and (b), authorize FTB to require a pass-through entity to withhold on “items of income,” including “partnership income or gains.” Requiring a pass-through entity to withhold on a nonresident partner or member’s “distributive share” of the pass-through entity’s income is consistent with Section 18662, subdivisions (a) and (b), because the withholding amount is determined by the pass-through entity’s income rather than distributions made. Second, FTB staff has found that a vast majority of the states have switched to requiring pass-through entities to withhold on “distributive share” of income. Modifying California’s pass-through entity withholding to be consistent with the rest of the states will lessen the burden on out-of-state pass-through entities that are required to comply with multiple state withholding schemes.
A secondary purpose behind this proposed regulation is to adopt a withholding scheme that best resolves the issues arising from the allocation of withholding. Specifically, pass-through entities have difficulty in filing timely forms to allocate withholding through multiple tiers. This results in the ultimate individual partners or members being denied a claimed withholding credit because the withholding has not been properly allocated.
The project also makes corresponding additional amendments to other withholding regulations in order to be consistent with the proposed new regulation at CCR Section 18662-7.
Staff held interested parties meetings on December 12, 2014, and September 8, 2017. Staff noticed amended proposed regulation draft language in a 90-day notice on March 15, 2019. On June 25, 2020, staff noticed additional amendments to the proposed regulation draft language in a 30-day notice. On June 8, 2021, staff noticed further amendments to the proposed regulatory language in a 45-day notice. On September 9, 2021, staff received permission from the three-member Board to proceed to the formal regulatory process. Staff continues to review the proposed amendments and new regulatory language to ensure it correctly implements and interprets the law.
Regulation Section 25136-2 — Market-Based Rules for Sales Other Than Sales of Tangible Personal Property
For tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2011, R&TC Section 25136 provides the sales factor numerator assignment rules for all sales other than sales of tangible personal property. R&TC Section 25136, subdivision (b), provides the market-based rules for assignment of sales of other than sales of tangible personal property where taxpayers have made a single-sales factor election.
CCR, Title 18, Section 25136-2 (which became effective on March 27, 2012, and operative for tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2011) provides rules for sales of services and sales of intangible property. In those rules, there are specific provisions for assignment of sales of stock or interests in a pass-through entity and for the incorporation of the special industry rules under CCR Section 25137, including those for mutual fund providers under CCR Section 25137-14.
Staff held an interested parties meeting on January 20, 2017, to elicit public input on further amendments to Section 25136-2, regarding benefit of the service received, asset management fees, government contracts, reasonable approximation, dividends, freight forwarding, and other issues. Staff held additional interested parties meetings on June 16, 2017, May 18, 2018, July 19, 2019, July 21, 2020, and June 4, 2021, to present draft amendments. On September 9, 2021, staff received permission from the three-member Board to proceed to the formal regulatory process. Staff anticipates publishing the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in early 2023.
Regulation Section 25137 — Alternative Apportionment Method Petition Procedures
R&TC Section 25137 states that when the standard allocation and apportionment provisions of UDITPA (R&TC Sections 25120-25139) do not fairly represent the extent of a taxpayer’s business activity in California, the taxpayer may petition for the use of an alternative method to accomplish an equitable allocation or apportionment of income to this state. In recent years, the number of taxpayers seeking to utilize alternative allocation or apportionment methodologies under the authority of R&TC Section 25137 has increased. This proposed rulemaking project would provide guidance to assist taxpayers with submitting petitions for relief under R&TC Section 25137.
On July 12, 2016, the three-member Board gave permission for staff to move forward with the informal regulatory process. Staff held interested parties meetings on June 30, 2017, November 28, 2018, December 4, 2019, and August 11, 2020, to present draft amendments. Staff received permission to proceed to the formal regulatory process from the three-member Board on March 4, 2021. Staff anticipates publishing the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in late 2022.
Regulation Section 30000 — Architectural and Engineering Services
Under California Government Code (GC) Section 4526, state agencies are required to adopt regulations before contracting for private architectural, landscape architectural, engineering, environmental, land surveying, or construction project management services. The GC imposes certain requirements on the selection of these services, including the demonstrated competence and qualifications of the firms involved. The purpose of this regulation project is to adopt the necessary regulations so that FTB can hire independent vendors for architectural and engineering drawings.
On December 3, 2019, the three-member Board approved staff's request to begin the informal regulatory process. Staff anticipates requesting permission from the three-member Board to proceed to the formal regulatory process in early 2023.